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Template:TipImported

ExplanationEdit

Many syntax files provide fold information. Unfortunately, the officially distributed vimscript syntax file did not until the latest version, and even now only provides limited support. You will need to define your own syntax folding, or resign yourself to inserting fold markers all over the place (which, incidentally, the vim.vim syntax file does). Here is a good set of syntax folding definitions that you can at least use as a starting point.

UsageEdit

The code at the end of this tip allows folding of various Vim script constructs via foldmethod=syntax. Put it into 'after/syntax/vim.vim', located either in your system-wide or home Vim directory (see Template:Help).

Use setlocal foldmethod=syntax to use these folds, in an autocommand or a mapping. If using an autocommand, the FileType and Syntax events are probably the best ones to use. Automatically calling zR when you do this may be a good idea as well.

How it worksEdit

These syntax groups set up regions between start and end patterns as long as they don't start within certain syntax groups such as comments, strings, or the lhs of a mapping, and attempt to skip over commented-out end patterns with the skip pattern. The containedin option is set to allow the group to start a fold in all but specific syntax groups defined by vim.vim. These syntax groups were determined through (a) finding an error and (b) looking at vim.vim to determine which ones are triggering the syntax folding that shouldn't be. It is useful to display the highlight group under the cursor while debugging this.

Most of the syntax rules have "begin" and "end" keywords that set up a simple syntax region, using keepend to allow syntax highlighting of end markers and extend to allow nesting.

The "if...else...endif" construct is a little different and works as follows:

  1. VimFoldIfContainer is a simple transparent region with no folding that matches the entire if...endif region
  2. VimFoldIf is only contained in VimFoldIfContainer, and matches if...else or if...elseif, then backs up the endmarker match to allow another match on the else(if). This folds the first part of if...else...endif constructs.
  3. VimFoldElseIf is also only contained in the container, and will match any number of elseif...else(if) groups. This also backs up the endmarker match to allow another match on it to start the next region.
  4. VimFoldElse is also only contained in the container, and will match the final possible group: else...endif.
  5. Note that the contained groups do not have the "extend" argument, meaning that even if the "else" does not match to end the group, the group will not extend beyond the confines of the VimFoldIfContainer (which ends at "endif") because VimFoldIfContainer uses keepend.

"try...catch" constructs work similarly to "if...else...endif" constructs (with try...catch...finally...endtry instead of if...elseif...else...endif).

ProblemsEdit

These syntax folds are not quite perfect, and suffer from at least the following:

  • The syntax definitions are fairly complex. Sometimes, especially when deleting or commenting out an "else", "catch", or "finally", you will need to type :syn sync fromstart to update the fold information. You may want to map this command to a key if you need to do it often.
  • Only limited support for comments and strings. The "skip" group could probably be improved; currently, it will skip anything between two " characters or anything after a single " character.
  • Some keywords (such as "else" and "catch") must be preceded by nothing but whitespace to properly trigger fold behavior; this may or may not be an issue depending on your coding style.
  • Because many regions end with "endxxx", some shorthand endings (like "en" for "endif") will not work. Where feasible, \%[] groups are used to allow as many shorthand keywords as possible, but in order to use this folding you will need to write code with at least the number of characters that make the keyword unambiguous to a search pattern.

New built-in foldingEdit

Version 7.1-76 of the default vim.vim syntax file (released January 24, 2008) includes folding for the following as a configurable option:

  • augroups
  • functions
  • embedded scripts in scheme, perl, python, ruby, and tcl

See Template:Help for details. Since this is a new feature the link may not work...try it within Vim after downloading the latest version.

Get the latest distribution of Vim from whichever source you prefer and put the following in either your vimrc or in vim.vim in your ftplugin directory:

let g:vimsyn_folding='af'

You can then delete the commented-out code for folding augroups and functions from the syntax definitions.

Syntax definitionsEdit

As mentioned above, place the following in your after/syntax Vim file:

" The default Vim syntax file has limited 'fold' definitions, so define more.

" define groups that cannot contain the start of a fold
syn cluster NoVimFold contains=vimComment,vimLineComment,vimCommentString,vimString,vimSynKeyRegion,vimSynRegPat,vimMapLhs

" fold while loops
syn region VimFold
      \ start="\<wh\%[ile]\>"
      \ end="\<endw\%[hile]\>"
      \ skip=/"[^"]\{-\}\("\|$\)/
      \ transparent fold
      \ keepend extend
      \ containedin=ALLBUT,@NoVimFold

" fold for loops
syn region VimFold
      \ start="\<for\>"
      \ end="\<endfo\%[r]\>"
      \ skip=/"[^"]\{-\}\("\|$\)/
      \ transparent fold
      \ keepend extend
      \ containedin=ALLBUT,@NoVimFold

" fold if...else...endif constructs
syn region VimFoldIfContainer
      \ start="\<if\>"
      \ end="\<endif\>"
      \ skip=/"[^"]\{-\}\("\|$\)/
      \ transparent
      \ keepend extend
      \ containedin=ALLBUT,@NoVimFold
      \ contains=NONE
syn region VimFoldIf
      \ start="\<if\>"
      \ end="^\s*else\%[if]\>"ms=s-1,me=s-1
      \ skip=/"[^"]\{-\}\("\|$\)/
      \ fold transparent
      \ keepend
      \ contained containedin=VimFoldIfContainer
      \ nextgroup=VimFoldElseIf,VimFoldElse
      \ contains=TOP
syn region VimFoldElseIf
      \ start="\<else\%[if]\>"
      \ end="^\s*else\%[if]\>"ms=s-1,me=s-1
      \ skip=/"[^"]\{-\}\("\|$\)/
      \ fold transparent
      \ keepend
      \ contained containedin=VimFoldIfContainer
      \ nextgroup=VimFoldElseIf,VimFoldElse
      \ contains=TOP
syn region VimFoldElse
      \ start="\<else\>"
      \ end="\<endif\>"
      \ skip=/"[^"]\{-\}\("\|$\)/
      \ fold transparent
      \ keepend
      \ contained containedin=VimFoldIfContainer
      \ contains=TOP

" fold try...catch...finally...endtry constructs
syn region VimFoldTryContainer
      \ start="\<try\>"
      \ end="\<endt\%[ry]\>"
      \ skip=/"[^"]\{-\}\("\|$\)/
      \ transparent
      \ keepend extend
      \ containedin=ALLBUT,@NoVimFold
      \ contains=NONE
syn region VimFoldTry
      \ start="\<try\>"
      \ end="^\s*\(fina\%[lly]\|cat\%[ch]\)\>"ms=s-1,me=s-1
      \ skip=/"[^"]\{-\}\("\|$\)/
      \ fold transparent
      \ keepend
      \ contained containedin=VimFoldTryContainer
      \ nextgroup=VimFoldCatch,VimFoldFinally
      \ contains=TOP
syn region VimFoldCatch
      \ start="\<cat\%[ch]\>"
      \ end="^\s*\(cat\%[ch]\|fina\%[lly]\)\>"ms=s-1,me=s-1
      \ skip=/"[^"]\{-\}\("\|$\)/
      \ fold transparent
      \ keepend
      \ contained containedin=VimFoldTryContainer
      \ nextgroup=VimFoldCatch,VimFoldFinally
      \ contains=TOP
syn region VimFoldFinally
      \ start="\<fina\%[lly]\>"
      \ end="\<endt\%[ry]\>"
      \ skip=/"[^"]\{-\}\("\|$\)/
      \ fold transparent
      \ keepend
      \ contained containedin=VimFoldTryContainer
      \ contains=TOP

" The following are now supported by default with vim.vim version 7.1-76
"
" If you have this version or later, simply add "a" and "f" to vim.vim's
" g:vimsyn_folding variable.
"
" Otherwise, uncomment the following syntax region definitions

" fold functions
"syn region VimFold
"      \ start="\<fu\%[nction]!\=\s\+\(<[sS][iI][dD]>\|[Ss]:\|\u\)\i*\ze\s*("
"      \ end="\<endfu\%[nction]\>"
"      \ skip=/"[^"]\{-\}\("\|$\)/
"      \ transparent fold
"      \ keepend extend
"      \ containedin=ALLBUT,@NoVimFold

" fold augroups
"syn region VimFold
"      \ start="\<aug\%[roup]\ze\s\+\(END\>\)\@!"
"      \ end="\<aug\%[roup]\s\+END\>"
"      \ skip=/"[^"]\{-\}\("\|$\)/
"      \ transparent fold
"      \ keepend extend
"      \ containedin=ALLBUT,@NoVimFold

ReferencesEdit

CommentsEdit

Template:Todo Fix problems mentioned in tip.


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